Electricity, Magnetism, and Electronics: Patents Inventions and Discoveries

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Nobel Prize Winners:
Contributions to Electricity, Electronics, Electromagnetism and Electrochemistry

Blue light-emitting diodeIsamu Akasaki
Hiroshi Amano
Shuji Nakamura
Physics2014US5,578,839 (1996)
CCD sensorWillard S. Boyle
George E. Smith
Transmission of light in fibers for optical communicationCharles Kuen KaoPhysics2009US3,549,233 (1970)
US4,047,796 (1977)
Giant MagnetoresistanceAlbert Fert
Peter Grünberg
Laser-based precision spectroscopy and the optical frequency comb techniqueJohn L. Hall
Theodor W. Hänsch
Superconductors and superfluids theoryAlexei A. Abrikosov
Vitaly L. Ginzburg
Anthony J. Leggett
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) discoveriesPaul C. Lauterbur
Sir Peter Mansfield
US5,990,680 (1997)
US6,088,611 (1995)
US5,708,359 (1995)
US5,532,006 (1993)
US5,081,992 (1990)
Semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed and opto-electronicsZhores I. Alferov
Herbert Kroemer
Physics2000US4,001,055 (1975)
US3,958,265 (1974)
Conductive polymers discovery and developmentAlan J. Heeger
Alan G. MacDiarmid
Hideki Shirakawa
Chemistry2000US4,204,216 (1978)
US4,806,271 (1987)
US4,594,180 (1984)
Signal transduction in the nervous systemArvid Carlsson
Paul Greengard
Eric R. Kandel
Integrated circuit inventionJack S. KilbyPhysics2000US3,138,743 (1959)
High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy developmentRichard R. ErnstChemistry1991US3,968,424 (1974)
US4,513,247 (1982)
Invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocksNorman F. Ramsey
Hans G. Dehmelt
Wolfgang Paul
Superconductivity in ceramic materials discoveryJ. Georg Bednorz
K. Alexander Müller
Electron optics; the design of the first electron microscopeErnst RuskaPhysics1986 
Scanning tunneling microscopeGerd Binnig
Heinrich Rohrer
Physics1986US4,343,993 (1980)
Quantized Hall effect discoveryKlaus von KlitzingPhysics1985US5,646,527 (1995)
Development of laser spectroscopy and high-resolution electron spectroscopyNicolaas Bloembergen
Arthur Leonard Schawlow
Kai M. Siegbahn
Electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems theoryPhilip Warren Anderson
Sir Nevill Francis Mott
John Hasbrouck van Vleck
Tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors discoveriesLeo Esaki
Ivar Giaever
Physics1973US3,209,215 (1962)
US4,173,763 (1977)
Josephson effects: theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrierBrian David JosephsonPhysics1973 
Superconductivity: BCS-theoryJohn Bardeen
Leon Neil Cooper
John Robert Schrieffer
Invention of the holographic methodDennis GaborPhysics1971GB685,286
Magneto-hydrodynamics discoveriesHannes Olof Gösta AlfvénPhysics1970 
Antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism discoveriesLouis Eugčne Félix NéelPhysics1970 
Quantum electronics: construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principleCharles Hard Townes
Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
Physics1964US2,879,439 (1958)
US2,929,922 (1958)
Transistor inventionWilliam Bradford Shockley
John Bardeen
Walter Houser Brattain
Physics1956US2,524,035 (1948)
US2,569,347 (1948)
Nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries (NMR)Felix Bloch
Edward Mills Purcell
Physics1952US2,561,489 (1946)
Resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nucleiIsidor Isaac RabiPhysics1944 
Thermionic Phenomenon (Richardson's Law)Owen Willans RichardsonPhysics1928 
Electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG) mechanism discoveryWillem EinthovenMedicine1924 
Elementary charge of electricity discovery; the photoelectric effectRobert Andrews MillikanPhysics1923 
Wireless telegraphy developmentGuglielmo Marconi
Karl Ferdinand Braun
Physics1909GB12039 (1896)
GB7777 (1899)
US763,772 (1900)
Conduction of electricity by gasesJoseph John ThomsonPhysics1906 
Adoption in the service of science of the electric furnaceHenri MoissanChemistry1906 
Cathode rays investigationPhilipp Eduard Anton von LenardPhysics1905 
Electrolytic theory of dissociationSvante August ArrheniusChemistry1903 
Magnetism influence upon radiation phenomenaHendrik Antoon Lorentz
Pieter Zeeman

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